Basic Configuration and Working of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pumps are mainly used for pumping water in industrial and residential properties. These machines move liquids with the help of kinetic energy that is stored in the motor. Although, their main function is to move water and cause the liquid to flow, centrifugal pumps are also used in sewage, food processing plants, water treatment plants, manufacturing plants, chemical and petroleum industries and have become extremely popular down the years.

Centrifugal pumps find their applications in pumping all types of low viscosity fluids at moderate pressure. Then can also easily handle liquids having high proportions of suspended solids present in them.

Construction And Working Of A Centrifugal Pump:

Centrifugal Pumps

  1. The impeller and shaft are the rotating parts of the pump that converts driver energy into kinetic energy. This inbuilt rotating impeller is the main rotating part used for pumping liquids without any complications. It provides centrifugal acceleration to the fluids. The impeller can be classified according to its mechanical construction. You can find closed, open, semi-open or vortex type. Closed impellers have a drawback and that is they come up with a lot of maintenance issues whereas the open and semi-open types of impellers do not clog, but usually need manual adjustment.

  2. Another important rotating component is the shaft whose basic purpose is to transmit the torque that is encountered during operation. It also has to support the impeller and other rotating parts.

  3. The volute or diffuser along with casing, casing cover, and bearings form the stationary parts of the centrifugal pump and are responsible for converting the kinetic energy into pressure energy. These pumps have two types of casings: volute and circular. Volute casings help to balance the hydraulic pressure created on the shaft of the pump while the circular casings are used for high capacity. Even the bearings are very useful components in the centrifugal pumps.

All these various components when put together and when they cooperate well with each other, centrifugal pumps achieve a great performance.

Centrifugal pumps are available in various different materials such as metal, plastic and ceramic. Steam turbines, high-speed electric motors and internal combustion engines all use centrifugal pumps. No valves are used in this machine.

Applications of Centrifugal Pumps:

Centrifugal pumps are used in many applications and across many industries. Some of the commercial, municipal, industrial and scientific fields that make use of such pumps are listed below:

  1. Oil and energy companies, refineries, power plants
  2. Heating and ventilation, air conditioning, pressure boosting, fire protection sprinkler systems.
  3. Waste water processing plants, manufacturing industries, boiler feed applications, municipal, industrial applications, irrigation, drainage and flood protection
  4. Chemical and Process Industries, pharmaceuticals, cellulose, sugar refining, food and beverage production
  5. Cryogenics and refrigerants.

Before buying a centrifugal pump, you need to carry out some research and look for companies that offer good after-sales services. You must always buy a good quality pump with superior components that will withstand the test of time.